Gambling can cause significant health and social harms for individuals, their families, and communities [1, 2]. While academic research has traditionally focused on the harms associated with problem or pathological levels of gambling, research now suggests that gambling harm may also occur for those with low or moderate levels of gambling, with the burdens associated with gambling harms now comparable with those associated with alcohol misuse and major depression [3]. Each year, approximately 400,000 Australian adults experience gambling-related harm or are at moderate risk of experiencing harm [4]. The “ripple effect” that gambling can have on families, friends, and employers is also represented by the fact that for each problem gambler, approximately five to ten others are negatively impacted by their gambling [4].

Traditional research paradigms in gambling have predominantly focused on individualised models to explain why some individuals develop problematic or pathological levels of gambling, with personal responsibility approaches offered as key harm minimisation strategies [5]. However, newer research has sought to understand the broader socio-cultural, environmental, and commercial determinants of gambling harm, and the broader range of policy and regulatory strategies that may be used to prevent harm [6–9]. Despite increasing concern from academics, legislators, and community groups about the ข่าวบอล   increasing proliferation of marketing for gambling products and services [10–14], very limited research has explored how marketing strategies may influence gambling attitudes and consumption intentions and the range of strategies that may be used to reduce the risks posed by marketing to different population subgroups.

Australia arguably has one of the most liberalised and intensive gambling environments in the world [2], with sports betting via online bookmakers a rapidly expanding segment of the Australian gambling market [15, 16]. Official statistics have reported an increase in sports betting expenditure in Australia [17, 18] and increasing profit margins for some online bookmakers [19]. However, this has also coincided with an increase in the number of individuals presenting to clinics for help with problems with this form of gambling, particularly young men [20]. Recent research suggests that approximately three quarters (72.1%) of losses for sports betting come from individuals with some level of gambling problems, representing the greatest proportion of losses derived from people with problem gambling symptoms when comparing across different gambling forms [21]. Further, recent research suggests that there exists a range of factors in both online and land-based environments (including but not limited to accessibility, the role of alcohol, and promotions) that may contribute to risky sports betting behaviours [9].

There has also been a significant increase in the amount of marketing for sports betting products in Australia [22], including significant increases in advertising spend by online bookmakers [23]. Marketing strategies for sports betting extend beyond advertisements on free to air television and also include more contemporary social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook (which often transcend advertising regulations) [7], as well as commercial sponsorship agreements with sporting codes, stadiums, broadcasters, and individual clubs [10, 24, 25]. For example, there are currently multimillion dollar sponsorship deals between online bookmakers and two of Australia’s major sporting codes—the National Rugby League (NRL) and the Australian Football League (AFL) [26], as well as other codes such as Tennis Australia [27].

Research suggests that young men are the target market for sports betting companies, with a range of marketing and promotional strategies used to both appeal to and reach this key audience segment [8]. Further, some young men have reported they feel targeted and bombarded by sports betting advertising [28]. More broadly, research into the impact of gambling advertising indicates that it may trigger impulses to gamble, may increase already high levels of gambling and may make it more difficult for problem gamblers in particular, to gamble less or not gamble at all [29, 30]. Researchers argue that sports betting has become closely aligned with young men’s sports fan rituals [31], with some researchers highlighting the role that marketing strategies may play in stimulating the risky consumption of sports betting products. For example, researchers have found that sports betting advertising used during sporting matches stimulates a range of positive, negative, and neutral affects in sports betters [32]. Researchers have also demonstrated that specific forms of marketing promotions such as inducements may be particularly influential in stimulating problematic betting behaviours [33].

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